Pep2Dia®, acting against prediabetes and preventing diabetes

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The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that the number of patients suffering from diabetes (types 1 and 2) has grown steadily over the past 50 years. It rose from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 and now tops more than 463 million, including 3.3 million people in France alone. This figure is predicted to exceed 700 million cases by 2045.

Between 2000 and 2016, premature mortality from diabetes increased by 5%, making the prevention and control of diabetes a major global health issue.

While type 1 diabetes occurs suddenly, type 2 diabetes develops over time during a prediabetes phase. Taking appropriate action in good time means prediabetes is reversible.

It is against this background that Pep2Dia® has been launched as a dietary measure to reduce blood sugar levels.

« The number of diabetics increased from 108 to 422 million between 1980 and 2014 »
– : Les chiffres du diabète

Focus on how the body functions during carbohydrate consumption

Macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) and micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) are essential for the proper functioning of the body and are provided through our nutrition.

Carbohydrates (sugars) provide vital energy for the body which will primarily burn calories to operate our basal metabolism (functioning of the body at rest for, among other things, breathing, heartbeat, brain function etc.). Consuming carbohydrates is therefore essential for good health.
There are two types of carbohydrates: complex carbohydrates (or sugars), which comprise large molecules devoid of sweet taste, and simple carbohydrates, small molecules which provide a sweet taste.

When we consume complex carbohydrates, or oligosaccharides, an enzyme in the intestine called alpha-glucosidase splits these complex sugars into a simple sugar, glucose, to allow them to be assimilated into the body.

Once transformed, glucose can cross the wall of the intestine and circulate in the body via the bloodstream to provide the sources of energy necessary for the proper functioning of our bodies; this is our glycaemia (blood sugar level). So, glucose levels essential for our bodies vary naturally throughout the day, with a significant increase occurring just after meals as these are a source of carbohydrate intake.

Following the ingestion of carbohydrates, the body regulates blood sugar levels by producing insulin in the pancreas. This allows glucose to pass more easily into the cells and optimises glucose storage in the liver as well as in muscles in the form of glycogen (the first energy reserve activated by the body). This whole mechanism helps lower blood sugar.

Dysfunction of blood sugar regulation in prediabetics and diabetics

Diabetes is a disorder in the absorption, use and storage of sugars from food. In people with diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body does not use it properly, which results in high blood glucose levels, called hyperglycaemia.

Left untreated, over time diabetes leads to serious damage to many organ systems, including the nerves and blood vessels, which can be fatal.

The concentration of glucose in the blood, or glycaemia, is the first clinical indicator for diagnosing prediabetes or diabetes.

Normal fasting blood sugar values are between 0.6 g/l and 1 g/l. After a meal, blood sugar rises for one to two hours, not exceeding 1.4 g/l, and then returns to baseline levels within two hours.

Prediabetes is defined as higher than normal fasting blood sugar levels of between 1 g/l and 1.25 g/l. This is a time when the body activates the pancreas, which produces excess insulin to regulate blood sugar levels.

However, over a certain number of years (the time period varies according to the individual, but is estimated to be five 5 to 10 years), the system becomes exhausted and the pancreas produces less insulin, before ceasing production altogether. This is the diabetic status, with chronic hyperglycaemia that is dangerous for the body.

Pep2Dia®, acting to keep blood sugar healthy

The preceding information allows us to understand how controlled blood sugar levels prevent prediabetics from becoming diabetic. Naturally helping the metabolism to better regulate blood sugar levels, and in particular hyperglycaemia, is therefore essential in the treatment of prediabetes.

Based on this observation and on scientific studies showing that the consumption of high-protein dairy products makes it possible to reduce blood sugar levels, CNRS’s LIENSs laboratory, in partnership with La Rochelle University and Ingredia, a company specialising in milk processing, developed Pep2Dia®, a bioactive ingredient derived from milk proteins that is 100% French and natural.

Mechanism of action : inhibition of a-glucosidase

Pep2Dia® is produced through the hydrolysis of milk protein (breaking it down into small parts). This hydrolysate contains an AP (alanine-proline) dipeptide which has the property of inhibiting alpha-glucosidase, the intestinal enzyme responsible for converting complex sugars into simple sugar (glucose).

So, thanks to its composition, Pep2Dia® makes it possible to reduce blood sugar content after a meal (postprandial glycaemia), including sweet meals such as breakfast.

Bioactive Pep2Dia® can be easily integrated into the composition of food supplements in different forms such as milk drinks, tablets and capsules.

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